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- Assessing breast cancer risk in women.Am Fam Physician. 2008; 78: 1361-1366
- Reproductive factors and breast cancer.Epidemiol Rev. 1993; 15: 36-47
- Breast cancer risk with postmenopausal hormonal treatment.Hum Reprod Update. 2005; 11: 545-560
- Epidemiology of endocrine-related risk factors for breast cancer.J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2002; 7: 3-15
- Oral contraceptive use and risk of breast, cervical, colorectal, and endometrial cancers: a systematic review.Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013; 22: 1931-1943
- Contemporary hormonal contraception and the risk of breast cancer.N Engl J Med. 2017; 377: 2228-2239
- Physical activity and risk of breast cancer overall and by hormone receptor status: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.Int J Cancer. 2013; 132: 1667-1678
- Mammographic density and the risk and detection of breast cancer.N Engl J Med. 2007; 356: 227-236
- Rating the risk factors for breast cancer.Ann Surg. 2003; 237: 474-482
- Benign breast disease and the risk of breast cancer.N Engl J Med. 2005; 353: 229-237
- Environmental risk factors and female breast cancer.Annu Rev Public Health. 1998; 19: 101-123
- Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer—collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58,515 women with breast cancer and 95,067 women without the disease.Br J Cancer. 2002; 87: 1234-1245
- Breast cancer in mothers prescribed diethylstilbestrol in pregnancy. Further follow-up.JAMA. 1993; 269: 2096-2100
- Breast cancer facts & figures 2015-2016.American Cancer Society, Inc., Atlanta (GA)2015
American Cancer Society. Risk factors for breast cancer in men. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer-in-men/causes-risks-prevention/risk-factors.html. Accessed July 1, 2018.
- State of the evidence 2017: an update on the connection between breast cancer and the environment.Environ Health. 2017; 16: 94
- Environmental chemicals and breast cancer: an updated review of epidemiological literature informed by biological mechanisms.Environ Res. 2018; 160: 152-182
- Does night work increase the risk of breast cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.Cancer Epidemiol. 2013; 37: 197-206
- United States cancer statistics: 1999–2014 incidence and mortality web-based report.Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and National Cancer Institute, Atlanta (GA)2017 (Available at:)
- Howlader N. Noone A.M. Krapcho M. SEER cancer statistics review, 1975–2009 (Vintage 2009 Populations). National Cancer Institute, Bethesda (MD)2012
CDC basic information about breast cancer. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/basic_info/index.htm. Accessed July 3, 2018.
CDC United States Cancer Statistics:Data Visualizations. Available at: https://gis.cdc.gov/cancer/USCS/DataViz.html. Accessed July 3, 2018.
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- Effect of screening and adjuvant therapy on mortality from breast cancer.N Engl J Med. 2005; 353: 1784-1792
- Differences in breast cancer stage at diagnosis and cancer-specific survival by race and ethnicity in the United States.JAMA. 2015; 313: 165-173
- Breast cancer in African-American women.Oncologist. 2005; 10: 1-14
- Cancer facts & figures for African Americans 2016-2018.American Cancer Society, Atlanta (GA)2016
- Randomized trial of breast self-examination in Shanghai: final results.J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002; 94: 1445-1457
- Study of the role of breast self-examination in the reduction of mortality from breast cancer. The Russian Federation/World Health Organization Study.Eur J Cancer. 1993; 29A: 2039-2046
- Breast self-awareness: the evidence behind the euphemism.Obstet Gynecol. 2014; 123: 734-736
- Breast cancer screening beliefs, recommendations and practices.Cancer. 2011; 117: 3101-3111
- Performance and reporting of clinical breast examination: a review of the literature.CA Cancer J Clin. 2004; 54: 345-361
- Screening clinical breast examination: how often does it miss lethal breast cancer?.Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2005; 35: 67-71
- Clinical breast examination for asymptomatic women - exploring the evidence.Aust Fam Physician. 2007; 36: 145-150
- Specificity of clinical breast examination in community practice.J Gen Intern Med. 2007; 22: 332-337
- Clinical and self breast examination remain important in the era of modern screening.Ann Surg Oncol. 2012; 19: 1484-1490
- Late-stage breast cancer among women with recent negative screening mammography: do clinical encounters offer opportunity for earlier detection?.J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2005; 35: 39-46
- Is clinical breast examination important for breast cancer detection?.Curr Oncol. 2016; 23: e332-e339
- Outcome of screening by clinical examination of the breast in a trial in the Philippines.Int J Cancer. 2006; 118: 149-154
- Breast screening in the emerging world: high prevalence of breast cancer in Cairo.Breast. 2005; 14: 340-346
- Clinical breast examination: preliminary results from a cluster randomized controlled trial in India.J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011; 103: 1476-1480
- Canadian National Breast Screening Study-2: 13-year results of a randomized trial in women aged 50-59 years.J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000; 92: 1490-1499
- Clinical breast examination: what can be recommended for its use to detect breast cancer in countries with limited resources?.Breast J. 2003; 9: S90-S93
- Screening for breast cancer: a systematic review to update the 2009 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation. Evidence synthesis No. 124. AHRQ Publication No. 14-05201-EF-1.Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville (MD)2016
Evidence summary: screening for breast cancer: breast cancer: screening. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. 2016. Available at: https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/breast-cancer-screening1. Accessed July 3, 2018.
- Impact of changing from annual to biennial mammographic screening on breast cancer outcomes in women aged 50-79 in British Columbia.J Med Screen. 2008; 15: 182-187
- Effects of annual vs triennial mammography interval on breast cancer incidence and mortality in ages 40-49 in Finland.Br J Cancer. 2011; 105: 1388-1391
Available at: https://www.aafp.org/patient-care/clinical-recommendations/all/breast-cancer.html. Accessed July 2, 2018.
- Breast cancer screening for women at average risk 2015 guideline update from the American Cancer Society.JAMA. 2015; 314: 1599-1614
- Practice bulletin number 179: breast cancer risk assessment and screening in average-risk women.Obstet Gynecol. 2017; 130 (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists): e1-e16
- Breast cancer screening for average-risk women: recommendations from the ACR Commission on breast imaging.J Am Coll Radiol. 2017; 14: 1137-1143
- Breast cancer screening in women at higher-than-average risk: recommendations from the ACR.J Am Coll Radiol. 2018; 15: 408-414
- Cancer screening recommendations: an international comparison of high income countries.Public Health Rev. 2018; 39: 1
- The impact of mammography screening on breast cancer mortality in Europe: a review of observational studies.J Med Screen. 2012; 19: 14-25
- Breast cancer mortality trends in two areas of the province of Florence, Italy, where screening programmes started in the 1970s and 1990s.Br J Cancer. 2004; 90: 1780-1783
- Changes in breast cancer mortality in Navarre (Spain) after introduction of a screening programme.J Med Screen. 2007; 14: 14-20
- Absolute numbers of lives saved and overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening, from a randomized trial and from the Breast Screening Programme in England.J Med Screen. 2010; 17: 25-30
- Cumulative probability of false-positive recall or biopsy recommendation after 10 years of screening mammography: a cohort study.Ann Intern Med. 2011; 155: 481-492
Available at: https://www.Breastcancer.org. Accessed July 2, 2018.
- Committee opinion no. 625: management of women with dense breasts diagnosed by mammography.Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 125 (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists): 750-751
Evidence summary: supplemental screening in women with dense breasts: breast cancer: screening. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. 2016. Available at: https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/evidence-summary-supplemental-screening-in-women-with-dense-/breast-cancer-screening1. Accessed July 19, 2018.
- Breast cancer screening with imaging: recommendations from the Society of Breast Imaging and the ACR on the use of mammography, breast MRI, breast ultrasound, and other technologies for the detection of clinically occult breast cancer.J Am Coll Radiol. 2010; 7: 18-27
- Adjunct ultrasonography for breast cancer screening in women at average risk: a systematic review.Int J Evid Based Healthc. 2013; 11: 87-93
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USPSTF published final recommendations. Available at: https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/UpdateSummaryFinal/breast-cancer-screening1. Accessed July 2, 2018.
- Characteristics of breast cancer detected by supplementary screening ultrasonography.Ultrasonography. 2015; 34: 153-156
- Prevention and screening in BRCA mutation carriers and other breast/ovarian hereditary cancer syndromes: ESMO clinical practice guidelines for cancer prevention and screening.Ann Oncol. 2016; 27: v103-v110
- Shared decision making to improve care and reduce costs.N Engl J Med. 2013; 368: 6-8
Disclosure: The authors have nothing to disclose.