Review Article| Volume 50, ISSUE 1, P103-117, March 2023

Eating Disorders in the Primary Care Setting


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.


      Subscribe to Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Arcelus J.
        • Mitchell A.J.
        • Wales J.
        • et al.
        Mortality rates in patients with anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders. A meta-analysis of 36 studies.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011; 68: 724-731
        • Birmingham C.
        • Beumont P.
        Medical management of eating disorders: a practical handbook for health care professionals.
        Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK2004
        • Gaudiani J.
        Sick enough: a guide to the medical complications of eating disorders.
        Routledge, 2019
        • Mehler P.
        • Andersen A.
        Eating disorders: a guide to medical care and complications.
        3rd ed. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore2017
        • American Psychiatric Association
        Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.
        5th ed. American Psychiatric Association, Arlington, VA2013
        • Hudson J.
        • Hiripi E.
        • Pope Jr H.G.
        • et al.
        The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.
        Bio Psych. 2007; 61: 348-358
        • Nagata J.
        • Garber A.
        • Tabler J.L.
        • et al.
        Prevalence and Correlates of Disordered Eating Behaviors Among Young adults with Overweight or Obesity.
        J Gen Intern Med. 2018; 33: 1337-1343
        • Becker A.
        • Franko D.
        • Speck A.
        • et al.
        Ethnicity and differential access to care for eating disorder symptoms.
        Int J Eat Disord. 2003; 33: 205-212
      1. Deloitte Access Economics. The Social and Economic Cost of Eating Disorders in the United States of America: A Report for the Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders and the Academy for Eating Disorders.
        • Westerberg D.
        • Waitz M.
        Binge-eating disorder.
        Osteopathic Fam Physician. 2013; 5: 230-233
        • Bacon Lindo
        Health at every size: the surprising truth about your weight.
        BenBella Books, Inc., Dallas, TX2010
        • Smink F.
        • van Hoeken D.
        • Hoek H.
        Epidemiology of Eating Disorders: Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates.
        Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2012; 14: 406-414
        • Call C.
        • Walsh B.
        • Attia E.
        From DSM-IV to DSM-5: changes to eating disorder diagnoses.
        Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2013; 26: 532-536
        • American Psychiatric Association
        Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, text revision.
        4th. American Psychiatric Publishing, Arlington2000
        • Mond J.
        • Mitchison D.
        • Hay P.
        Prevalence and implications of eating disordered behavior in men.
        in: Cohn L. Lemberg R. Current findings on males with eating disorders. Routledge, Philadelphia, PA2014: 15-17
        • Rushing J.
        • Jones L.
        • Carney C.
        Bulimia Nervosa: A Primary Care Review.
        Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2003; 5: 217-224
        • Ulfvebrand S.
        • Birgegard A.
        • Norring C.
        • et al.
        Psychiatric comorbidity in women and men with eating disorders results from a large clinical database.
        Psych Res. 2015; 230: 294-299
        • Marques L.
        • Alegria M.
        • Becker A.E.
        • et al.
        Comparative Prevalence, Correlates of Impairment, and Service Utilization for Eating Disorders across U.S. Ethnic Groups: Implications for Reducing Ethnic Disparities in Health Care Access for Eating Disorders.
        Int J Eat Disord. 2011; 44: 412-420
        • Bryant-Waugh R.
        • Micali N.
        • Cooke L.
        • et al.
        Development of the Pica, ARFID, and Rumination Disorder Interview, a multi-informant, semi-structured interview of feeding disorders across the lifespan: A pilot study for ages 10–22.
        Int J Eat Disord. 2019; 52: 378-387
        • Todisco P.
        Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in Adults.
        in: Manzato E. Cuzzalaro M. Donini L.M. Hidden and lesser-known disordered eating behaviors in medical and psychiatric conditions. Springer, Cham2022: 103-121
        • Nicely T.
        • Lane-Loney S.
        • Masciulli E.
        • et al.
        Prevalence and characteristics of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder in a cohort of young patients in day treatment for eating disorders.
        J Eat Disord. 2014; 2: 1
        • Jacobi C.
        • Hayward C.
        • de Zwaan M.
        • et al.
        Coming to terms with risk factors for eating disorders: application of risk terminology and suggestions for a general taxonomy.
        Psychopharmacol Bull. 2004; 130: 19-65
        • Hilbert A.
        • Pike K.
        • Goldschmidt A.B.
        • et al.
        Risk factors across the eating disorders.
        Psych Res. 2014; 220: 500-506
        • Academy for Eating Disorders
        Eating disorders: a guide to medical care.
        4th ed. AED Report, Reston, VA2021
        • American Psychiatric Association
        Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with eating disorders.
        3rd ed. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC2006
        • Bulik C.
        • Blake L.
        • Austin J.
        • et al.
        Genetics of eating disorders: What the clinician needs to know.
        Psych Clin. 2019; 42: 59-73
        • Setnick J.
        The eating disorders clinical pocket guide: quick reference for healthcare providers.
        Snack Time Press, Dallas, TX2005
        • Lahti-Koski M.
        • Mannisto S.
        • Pietinen P.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of weight cycling and its relation to health indicators in Finland.
        Obes Res. 2005; 13: 333-341
        • Kakainami L.
        • Knauper B.
        • Brunet J.
        Weight cycling is associated with adverse cardiometabolic markers in a cross-sectional representative US sample.
        J Epidemial Community Health. 2020; 74: 662-667
        • Heal D.
        • Gosden J.
        What pharmacological interventions are effective in binge-eating disorder? Insights from a critical evaluation of the evidence from clinical trials.
        Int J Obes. 2022; 46: 677-695
        • Hale M.
        • Logomarsino J.
        The use of enteral nutrition in the treatment of eating disorders: a systematic review. Eating and Weight Disorders-Studies on Anorexia.
        Bulimia Obes. 2019; 24: 179-198
        • Hindley K.
        • Fenton C.
        • McIntosh J.
        A systematic review of enteral feeding by nasogastric tube in young people with eating disorders.
        J Eat Disord. 2021; 9: 90
        • Swanson S.
        • Crow S.
        • Le Grange D.
        • et al.
        Prevalence and Correlates of Eating Disorders in Adolescents: Results From the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011; 68: 714-723
        • Wittchen H.
        • Jacobi F.
        Size and burden of mental disorders in Europe — A critical review and appraisal of 27 studies.
        Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005; 15: 357-376
        • Murray S.
        Updates in the treatment of eating disorders in 2018: a year in review in eating disorders: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention.
        Eat Disord. 2019; 27: 6-17
        • Tholking M.
        • Mellowspring A.
        • Girard-Eberle S.
        • et al.
        American Dietetic Association: Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance for Registered Dietitians (Competent, Proficient, and Expert) in Disordered Eating and Eating Disorders (DE and ED).
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2011; 111
        • Anderson L.
        • Reilly E.
        • Berner L.
        • et al.
        Treating Eating Disorders at Higher Levels of Care: Overview and Challenges.
        Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2017; 19: 48
        • LeGrange D.
        • Lock J.
        • Loeb K.
        • et al.
        Academy for eating disorders position paper: The role of the family in eating disorders.
        Int J Eat Disord. 2010; 43: 1-5
        • Murray S.B.
        • Anderson L.K.
        • Roxanne
        Adapting family-based treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa across higher levels of patient care. Innovations in Family Therapy for Eating Disorders.
        Routledge, New York2016: 29-40
        • Jansen A.
        • Broekmate J.
        • Heymans M.
        Cue-exposure vs self-control in the treatment of binge eating: A pilot study.
        Behav Res Ther. 1992; 30: 235-241
        • Schebendach J.
        • Mayer L.
        • Devlin M.J.
        • et al.
        Dietary energy density and diet variety as risk factors for relapse in anorexia nervosa: A replication.
        Int J Eat Disord. 2012; 45: 79-84
        • Steinglass J.
        • Albano A.
        • Simpson H.B.
        • et al.
        Confronting fear using exposure and response prevention for anorexia nervosa: a randomized controlled pilot study.
        Int J Eat Disord. 2014; 47: 174-180
        • La Via M.
        3.1 Screening, Diagnosis, and Comorbidity of Eating Disorders.
        J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2016; 55: S88